Horticulture in pakistan ppt
Mango Mangifera indica L. It is called the king of fruits. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars. Cultivation of mango is believed to have originated in S.
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Agriculture and the environment
Mango Mangifera indica L. It is called the king of fruits. India has the richest collection of mango cultivars. Cultivation of mango is believed to have originated in S. Mango is being cultivated in southern Asia for nearly six thousand years. An increasing trend has been observed in world mango production averaging 22 million metric tonnes per year.
The state-wise area and production of mangoes are given in Table 1 below:. Andhra Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh. Tamil Nadu. West Bengal. The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability, high nutritive value, richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour.
It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0. Raw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various traditional products like raw slices in brine, amchur, pickle, murabba, chutney, panhe sharabat etc. Presently, the raw fruit of local varieties of mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine on commercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western zone.
The wood is used as timber, and dried twigs are used for religious purposes. Its starch is used in confectionery industry. Mango also has medicinal uses. The ripe fruit has fattening, diuretic and laxative properties.
It helps to increase digestive capacity. Among internationally traded tropical fruits, mango ranks only second to pineapple in quantity and value. Southeast Asian buyers consume mangoes all year round. Each exporting country has its own varieties, which differ in shape, colour and flavour. Prices are very low for Indonesian and Thailand fruit and are on the higher side for Indian fruit.
In the United States of America, the prices vary with the season, higher prices found during February and March, when mango availability is lowest. Most international trade in fresh mangoes takes place within short distances. India and Pakistan are the predominant suppliers to the West Asian market. Southeast Asian countries get most of their supplies from the Philippines and Thailand. European Union buyers source mangoes from South America and Asia.
Although Asia accounts for 75 percent of world production, its dominance does not translate into international trade. Asian producers find it easier to expand sales to the European Union. Phytosanitary restrictions are less stringent. Transportation costs are not as big a factor in exporting mangoes to the European Union as in exporting to the United States market: for example, India and Pakistan are able to compete with non-Asian suppliers to the European Union, whereas proximity gives Mexico and Haiti a clear advantage in supplying to the United States market.
German imports are spread more evenly throughout the year. Pakistan supplies the majority of its exports to the European Union during June and July; Indian exports take place mainly during the month of May.
The different products of mango which are exported include mango chutney, pickles, jam, squash, pulp, juice, nectar and slices. These are being exported to U. India's mango exports were estimated at 45 thousand tonnes worth Rs crore Rs 1 billion inFresh mangoes are exported to Bangladesh, U.
A and U. Processed mango products viz. The trend in export of mangoes during the period to is given in Graph 3 and destination wise exports during are shown in Table Table-2 : Country-wise export of mangoes from India duringOf late Asian market has been expanding.
China's market has been increasing and ranks second among the top importers in the world. Mango has an established export market and poses bright opportunities for export in the international market whether in fresh or processed forms. Similarly, the mango industry has provided livelihood opportunities to its growers and those involved in its marketing channel. Creation of essential infra-structure for preservation, cold storage, refrigerated transportation, rapid transit, grading, processing, packaging and quality control are the important aspects which needs more attention.
There is need for developing processing industries in the southern region of the country where post harvest losses in handling and marketing are higher.
There is scope to establish mango preservation factories in cooperative sector. Mango growers cooperatives on the lines of Mahamango need to encouraged to come up in major mango producing States.
This will add to their income through processing and create additional employment opportunities for the rural people. Considerable amount of waste material, e.
This will also help to improve sanitary conditions around factory premises. Mango is well adapted to tropical and sub-tropical climates. It thrives well in almost all the regions of the country but cannot be grown commercially in areas above m. It cannot stand severe frost, especially when the tree is young. High temperature by itself is not so injurious to mango, but in combination with low humidity and high winds, it affects the tree adversely.
Mango varieties usually thrive well in places with rainfall in the range of cm. The distribution of rainfall is more important than its amount. Dry weather before blossoming is conducive to profuse flowering. Rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination. However, rain during fruit development is good but heavy rains cause damage to ripening fruits. Strong winds and cyclones during fruiting season can play havoc as they cause excessive fruit drop.
Loamy, alluvial, well drained, aerated and deep soils rich in organic matter with a pH range of 5. Mango is cultivated in almost all the states of India. The state-wise growing belts are given in the following :. Growing belts. Jabalpur, Raipur, Bastar. Karnal, Kurushetra. Jammu, Kathwa, Udhampur. Kolar, Bangalore, Tumkur, Kagu. Kannur, Palakkad, Trissur, Malappuram. Madhya Pradesh. Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Raigarh.
Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Ropar. Dharmapuri, Vellore, Tiruvallur, Theni, Madurai. Saharanpur, Bulandshahar, Lucknow, Faizabad, Varanasi. Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia. In India, about 1, varieties of mango are grown including 1, commercial varieties.
Each of the main varieties of mango has an unique taste and flavour. Based on time of ripening , varieties may be classified as under :.
Fazli, Fernandin, Mulgoa, Neelum, Chausa. Varieties grown. Fernandin, Mankurad. Dashehari, Langra, Sarauli, Chausa, Fazli. Himachal Pradesh. Chausa, Dashehari, Langra. Mundappa, Olour, Pairi. Dashehari, Langra, Chausa, Malda. Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Langra. Mango can be propagated from seed or propagated vegetatively. Plants are generally propagated vegetatively by using several techniques like veneer grafting, inarching and epicotyl grafting etc.
Planting is usually done in the month of July-August in rainfed areas and during February-March in irrigated areas. In case of heavy rainfall zones, planting is taken up at the end of rainy season.
The planting distance is 10m. In the model scheme, a spacing of 8m.
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